This conference will explore the plurality of ancient Judaism and the related present debates on torah, temple, and land, which no longer are considered monolithic institutions in terms of meaning and function. The most commonly held view now is that it was not always the same texts, traditions, and/or individuals, that played the same central or authoritative role in the various existing strands of Judaism. The political, cultural, and social contexts of the larger mediterranean world clearly differed from one region to another, so that scholars increasingly question the viability of defining specific or characteristic unifying traits of all jewish communities and thus tend to refer to “Judaisms” rather than “Judaism.” Increased attention has also been paid to the distinctions and overlaps between self-perception and the perception of others (e.g. Greeks and Romans) regarding jewish identity, practice, and belief. This conference is intended to deal with these and other related questions in a workshop setting in which scholars will engage with different views and ideas.