In the second half of the second millennium BC, many areas of Western Eurasia witnessed the return to a settled lifestyle after a long epoch of mobile life. Between the Black Sea, the Caucasus, and neighbouring mountains, a new type of settlements arose. Particular in the Caucasian mountains an architectural tradition emerged that involved the permanent building material stone for the construction of very sophisticated multifunctional buildings. Stone architecture probably was not invented in the Caucasus, but the innovation once adopted fell on fruitful ground. Over nearly one thousand years of recurring leaps of innovations can be followed. This article discusses the dialectics of these innovative leaps as well as between the development of new technical solutions and new social demands in building as well as dwelling.