At the heart of the Excellence Cluster stands the interplay of space and knowledge in the formation and transformation of ancient cultures and societies. Space in this context refers to a wide range of real and conceptual spaces. Topics to be explored range from the archaeological and geo-scientific reconstruction of ancient landscapes to the organization of spaces from a historical perspective; from the description of spaces in images and texts to the scholarly reconstruction of those spaces in ancient philosophy and mathematics. The category of knowledge not only encompasses ancient knowledge of spatial relations in the world. It also concerns the form in which information is recorded and passed on and refers to practically applied knowledge, empirical knowledge and theoretical treatments of natural phenomena.
Cultures ranging from the Neolithic Period in 7000 BC to late antiquity are investigated, together with their impact on the Middle Ages and the modern era. From a geographical perspective, Topoi projects include cultures of the Mediterranean region, the ancient Near East and the Black Sea region, as well as cultures of the Eurasian steppes and Central Europe.