The imaginary map of ancient Italy is defined by mythical wanderings that originate primarily with the events surrounding the Trojan War. The conflict between Greeks and Trojans is thereby quelled and a new synthesis achieved. Due to the extent of the surviving records this process can be studied particularly closely in the case of Rome (with the “founding fathers” Euander, Aeneas and Romulus), but it holds as well for other Italian cities. In a number of cases it is even possible to identify the relevant local traditions. By contrast, there are hardly any examples of autochtonic conceptions or notions of cultural independence from Greece.