In the framework of Research Area C-III, researchers from the disciplines of prehistoric archaeology, Near Eastern archaeology, ancient history, classical archaeology, Egyptology, music archaeology, and ethnology investigate the construction of sacred landscapes and complex spaces of action through ritual activities, and in particular those characterized by processions. Special importance is attributed to the interrelationship of physical space, imagery, actions, and sound. The spectrum of research projects is broad, and encompasses investigations of Bronze Age hoards in Central Europe; the structuring of ritual spaces in the framework of meal times in the context of the early states and cities of southern Mesopotamia and southwestern Iran; as well as investigations of processions and pilgrimages in Greek antiquity and in the present day (including, for instance, processions and pilgrimages in the Himalayan mountains and in the Andes region). Also treated is the question of the emergence and generation of acoustic spaces. Productive as theoretical bases are concepts of space and ritual which emphasize the construction of spaces through the interplay of physical space and its reception by the beholder in the course of structured actions. Fundamental to all projects, furthermore, are discussions of common parameters (including the informational value of source materials, the role of participants in rituals, the longue durée of rituals) and theoretical approaches, for example theories of performance and concepts of parallel spaces.