The article demonstrates the basic outlines of Roman rule in the new province of Asia, with a focus on the limits placed on these. These limits were dictated by the domestic problems of the Republic, which made the quality of the Roman provincial regime recede compared with that of the Attalid kingship. The example of the cities is used to compare this situation under Roman rule with that of the Attalids. It was the cities, particularly, which benefited from Attalid rule. Roman rule was only gradually established, and the cities’ advantageous situation could not be maintained, especially not during the Roman civil wars. This situation, which at times was precarious, led to discontent or to a stressed reference to old privileges – although the pacifying effect of the victory achieved by Octavian/Augustus was mostly also honestly welcomed.