Helen Hattab is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Houston. She is an expert in late Aristotelian and Early Modern Philosophy and Science.  She has published on the historic transformations that the metaphysical concepts of substance, form, matter and causation underwent in the 16th and 17th centuries.  She is particularly interested in Descartes’ relation to his predecessors, but is also working more broadly to unearth anti-Aristotelian arguments, found in atomist, naturalist, Platonic, Ramist and Stoic works of this period, that prepared the way for the eventual rejection of Aristotelianism by canonical early modern figures. In addition, she is tracing the defenses of these key Aristotelian concepts by their most influential proponents to reveal how early modern Aristotelianism transformed itself from within.  More recently she has begun to examine different senses of the twin methods of analysis and synthesis, which formed part of a scientific method known as the geometrical method, as well as related issues surrounding scientific knowledge of universal/common properties in the early modern period. She is particularly interested in whether/how analysis and synthesis are at work in the ethical and political theories that Thomas Hobbes and Benedict de Spinoza developed in the second half of the 17th century.