The Chalcolithic period in the Near East is a key transitional period in terms of both animal production strategies and the development of social stratification. Zooarchaeological and spatial analyses of the faunal remains from the site of Tel Tsaf, Israel provide important insight into changing animal production goals during this period. Tel Tsaf is a “Middle Chalcolithic” village located in the Jordan River Valley, dating from 5300-4500 Cal BC. It is one of the most important Chalcolithic sites yet excavated in the Levant. While there is little evidence for a shift towards the specialized production of non-meat animal products, such as milk or wool, cattle remains at the site provide early evidence of plowing in the region. The use of cattle for plowing likely enabled the large-scale surplus production of agriculture indicated at the site by the presence of large grain storage silos. Additionally, the spatial distribution of food remains indicates that not all households had access to the same variety of foods, suggesting the development of increasing social differentiation.