The dismanteling of the Septizonium and the reuse of its construction materials
The Septizonium, built under the rule of Septimius Severus (193 – 211 A.D.), dedicated in 203, and completely destroyed under Pope Sixtus V in 1588, is considered one of the most important monuments of ancient Rome. The reconstruction of the original design of the building, in particular, has interested research from the 19th century to the present. Along with current archaeological findings, the pictorial and written sources created from Antiquity through the Renaissance and their later copies convey an image of this multifaceted building.
The dissertation project “The dismantling of the Septizonium and the reuse of its construction materials” concentrates essentially on two starting points. First, the monument will be grasped on the archaeological level in its parts – few of them extant, most of them lost – and as detailed and accurate a picture of the function and original shape of the Septizonium will be traced. Here, the specific spatial-topographical context of axially laid-out imperial Rome serves as the basis and template within which the construction is to be read and located. Second, the aim on the material level is to find those parts of the Septizonium that were reused as spolia in post-ancient times, to demonstrate this in detail, and to reveal their original function in the Septizonium. In a broader sense, this also raises the many-layered question of the material, semantic, historical, and also aesthetic content of the spolia in their respective contexts of transposition. This thematic field will be unpacked and elaborated in detail on the basis of a spatial reference system of the spolia as well as with the aid of a new contextualization of them – first, within the individual site and monument, their reuse; and second, within the urban cityscape of Rome.
The project thereby touches on deep spatial matters on various levels: the traces and paths of the construction parts and fragments from the Septizonium to the site of their subsequent transposition initially form a widely branching network across the urban territory of Rome. On a higher level, a picture of Rome at the time of Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) develops, which can be read in terms of space and topography as well as in terms of history and perception. Like a topographically arranged city map, emphases, structures of connection, and the emergence and shifting of peripheral areas crystallize here. The spatial dimensions of the dissertation project, however, emerge on the respectively next level of investigation, because then the individual spolia lay a three-dimensional grid over the respective sites of their transposition – monuments, constructions, squares, and streets. This entails a shift in habits of seeing, which initially affects the recipient’s spatial-historical perception, but then also leads to starting and connecting points of a newly forming structure of thought and perception in the Renaissance. Finally, the shifting of the fragments during the dismantling of the Septizonium, as well as their categorization and the calculation of their volume by the architect entrusted with their dismantling, Domenico Fontana, and their subsequent recombination pose a complex puzzle with spatial dimensions. The mobility of the spolia, their decontextualization, and their suitability for a recontextualization offer multiple starting points for exploring the material-historical structure of spaces. The existence and present location of dismantled materials as spolia of the ancient Septizonium in a new construction context present additional indications on a historical-factual level of the original design and function of the ancient building.
Another emphasis of the dissertation project is the interpretation and reinterpretation of the semantic content of the monument. The connection of the sites that can be made out today where spolia were brought, on the one hand, and the topography of Rome at the time of Sixtus V, on the other, plays an important role thereby. For these sites and their spatial and semantic connotations have a reciprocal effect on the post-ancient perception of the Septizonium itself. Accordingly, its vanished splendor and historical significance are mirrored in the post-ancient, spolia-adorned buildings and sites. The fragmentary seeming, but sudden and unexpected appearance of the lost glory of Antiquity in the form of spolia, like “flashes of genius from Antiquity”, initiate in such sites a “process of gentrification”, to speak in the jargon of sociology. The newer buildings gain more own importance by means of the transformation and accumulation of the semantic layers of the ancient monument that has been lost. The spatial dimension elaborated here, on both the material-factual and the semantic level, makes a crucial contribution to decoding the Septizonium and its spolia. A level shaped primarily by perceptual aspects comes into play that goes beyond a purely materially oriented archaeology of the factual.
A philosophical-perceptual dimension also opens up. The spatial transformation of fragments of a past culture, whose memory is nonetheless omnipresent in Rome, is reflected in a special way in the spolia of an ancient building. In their new surroundings and function, these construction elements often seem strange or like foreign bodies, initially raising questions in the viewer. On the epistemological level, they thereby also raise the question of uncovering the view of such ancient pieces. The way habits of seeing and aesthetic feeling differed between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is extremely interesting. Here, the effect and method of mounting, fitting, and material matching provide a basis upon which the composition of lines to develop the gaze backward or forward can be grasped. In this area, a connection develops to the aesthetic feeling of what is perceived, which is shown, developed, and evidenced in detail on the architectonic level in the example of the spolia of the Septizonium.
Methodologically, the analytic instruments of a historically critical study of the sources and an architectural research analysis of materials and details will be employed. The evaluation and interpretation of the sources will be carried out in relation to both pictorial and written testimony. The pictorial documents comprise above all architectural, panorama, ground plan, frontal, and detail drawings of the Septizonium executed by Renaissance artists and architects, as well as – and this is new – their architectural and detail studies of the sites and monuments into which the spolia and fragments of the dismantled Septizonium were integrated. Here, the methodology will be a detailed and rigorous analysis and interpretation of the drawings, in order to grasp the construction and material changes and the de- and recontextualization of the fragments and spolia.
The complex of written documents consists, first, of the already known sources and written evidence from Antiquity to the Renaissance on the building and its functional, material, and semantic perception, which are evaluated above all in terms of historical construction research and possible interpretations toward an archaeological reconstruction of the monument. Second, there is the extensive written documentation of the dismantling of the Septizonium and the transposition and reuse of its parts in various monuments and buildings within Rome. This documentation includes the sources in the Archivio Segreto Vaticano and the Archivio di Stato di Roma, which hold the already known construction documents of Domenico Fontana as well as various newly discovered documents on the transport and measuring of the spolia. The insertion of spolia, evidenced in documents for the respective sites and monuments of their transposition, is especially interesting and calls for precise study.
3D laser scan technology, common in the archaeological analysis of construction and monuments, will be used. This method is justified by its precise determination of the details and dimensions of the installed materials, as is found in the reused spolia of the Septizonium. The mounting of individual building components in inaccessible heights and monument-protected complexes justifies registering the dimensions and surface structure of the spolia by means of laser scan technology. This allows conclusions about the material of the spolia and can lay foundations for a precise matching with the statements of the Renaissance architects and transporters of the construction materials to the spolia. The further processing of the 3D photos of the spolia also permits their inclusion in an overarching 3D model of the possible ancient form of the Septizonium, as recreated by construction research and archaeology. The 3D laser scan campaign to photograph and survey the spolia of the Septizonium carried out from May to July 2009 could be carried out as a collaborative project of TOPOI Berlin with the DAAD RISE-Project (Research Internship in Science and Engineering) and the John Hopkins University of Baltimore.
Christoph Konrad: Resafa-Ruṣāfat Hišām. Die Quṣūr (FP 106 und FP 220) in der Residenz des Kalifen Hišām b. ʿAbd al-Malik. Architektur und Baudekor – Ausgrabung, bauhistorische Analyse, archäologisch-kunsthistorische Einordnung
The tenth Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn ʿAbd al-Malik (105-125/724-743) decided to take his residence in Resafa-Sergiupolis persumably in the thrid year of his reign. There he spent all the 19 years of his rule, which ‘…marks the final period of prosperity and splendour of the Umayyad caliphate’ (Gabrieli, EI2 sv. Hisham). Resafa was a Late Antique city of pilgrimage, 25 km south of the river Euphrates.
In correlation to his founder, the new residence is named in the Arabic sources Rusafat Hisham. In an area of about one sq. km many small and a view bigger and more important buildings (qusur) have been erected as well as building structures aiming to collect and use the surface water of the rain falls, which occur in the arid area just in winter times. The project is dealing with two of the more important buildings in the residence of the caliph Hisham. These buildings could be studied during a research and excavation project of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) under the directorate of D. Sack in the last years. The buildings show a later stage of development of the Umayyad qasr. The living rooms are no longer orientated to the main courtyard of the building but to different side courtyards. This may be caused by a change of social behaviour. The situation of one of the qusur above a wadi, its rich decoration with stucco and wall paintings and a pleasure garden in the back of the main hall already shows the most important elements of the Islamic palace buildings of later times.
The PhD-project will bring profound knowledge about the main buildings in this Early Islamic ‘Central Place’.
Christoph Konrad ist Kunsthistoriker mit Schwerpunkt Orientalische Kunstgeschichte und arbeitet in Topoi zusammen mit dem Geographen Brian Beckers an dem Tandem-Dissertationsprojekt der Gruppe Resafa in Syria (A-I-3). Im Mittelpunkt seiner Forschungen stehen die beiden Hauptbauten der frühislamischen Kalifen-Residenz Ruṣāfat Hišām (8. Jh. n. Chr.). Beide Paläste wurden von Konrad in den letzten Jahren im Rahmen der von D. Sack geleiteten Resafa-Grabung der Zentrale des Deutschen Archälogischen Institutes (DAI) mit Unterstützung der Fritz Thyssen Stiftung und Topoi archäologisch untersucht. Sie folgen dem Bautypus des Qaṣr, das sind für repräsentative Zwecke angelegte Kastelle die im Inneren und an den Fassaden reich mit Baudekor geschmückt waren (siehe Mšatta-Fassade im Pergamonmuseum). Ihre Erforschung soll wesentlich zum Verständnis des ‘Zentralen Ortes’ Resafa beitragen.
Professor Eichmann is head of the Oriental institute of the German Archaeological Institute. His research interests include the architectural history, comparative studies on the late Chalcolithic in egypt, studies in Tayma, Saudi-Arabia and the topics of Music Archaeology of Egypt. Further more Ricardo Eichmann is holding a lectureship a the University of Jena. Since summer 2009 he is part of research- and excavationproject at Wuqro in Ethiopia.